A surgeon's primary function is to perform surgery. They analyze a patient's health and history, and create a surgical plan that prioritize the patient's safety and recovery. They also coordinate other staff that participates in surgery, and work with other physicians post-op. You might see a surgeon for a variety of reasons. Surgeries are typically scheduled in advance, except emergency surgery. Surgeries can be major or minor, and have varying recovering times. Surgeons can specialize in many areas of medicine. Common specializations are cardiac surgeons, orthopedic surgeons, and emergency surgeons.